Cement gel is a jelly like swelling that occurs around each grain
of Portland cement when water is added to the concrete mix. Aggregate
gel is essentially the same. It is the initial reaction product
between cement and water. The gel is the controlling factor in cracking,
uniformity, and structural quality of concrete. Cement gel relates
to the size of the voids and pores in concrete.
cement gel imparts fatty and cohesive properties to the mix. As
hydration of the cement proceeds, the gel partly crystallizes and
on drying, reverts to almost the original cement grain size.
size and hydration can vary widely, depending upon water available
and temperature. It is these variations throughout the concrete
which causes variations in the quality and porosity of concrete
for a given mix design.
the heat of summer, gels form faster and longer, and large gels
absorb more water from the mix. Thus, the resulting concrete has
poorer quality. As water is consumed by hydration and rapidly lost
through evaporation, internal stresses are created. The eventual
results are shrinkage cracks.
cooler weather, gel formation is retarded. Smaller gels are formed,
take longer to form, consume less water, and as a result less water
is required. Because hydration is slower, less shrinkage occurs,
concrete is more dense, and usually has a higher structural quality.
DS, due to its chemical reaction forming a silica aero gel, aids
in retaining the water in the concrete during the hydration/curing
process, resulting in a higher quality concrete.
this specific application, using Concrete Remedy DS as a cure for new
concrete, a coverage rate of approximately of 150 - 200 square feet
per gallon is recommended.
Report No. 5
is the transmission of moisture and water in masonry. By definition,
it is the action by which the surface of a liquid, where it is in
contact with a solid, is elevated or depressed ( rises or falls
). The elevation or depression is caused by capillary action. By
capillary action, moisture may travel from a lower to higher elevation
or can travel in any direction.
The amount of moisture that can be transmitted from the ground by
capillary action is often underestimated, if understood at all.
Tests by the Housing and Home Finance Agency (US Government) conducted
at the Forest Products Laboratory have clearly indicated that as
much as 12 gallons of water per 1,000 sq. ft. per day can be transmitted
through a concrete slab and, if permitted, evaporates into the air.
When the slab is covered by floor covering, this moisture will carry
alkalis, salts or additives from the concrete. This will collect
under the floor covering and attack the bond of the adhesive, resulting
in destruction or deterioration of the adhesive itself.
same principal also applies to vertical concrete, where fog, dew
and dampness can collect causing paint and other sealants to peel
or wear off prematurely.
distance which water will rise from the ground by capillary action
is also underestimated. Test by the same US authority indicate that
moisture can climb form a water table that may be 20 feet below
the ground or slab. Obviously, general ground dampness speeds up
the transmission of moisture.
is suspected that this transmission may result from a combination
of capillary, absorption and various pressures rather than capillary
alone. Nevertheless, moisture can migrate from this depth. Concrete Remedy
DS, due to its unique penetration factor and chemical reaction
with alkali its ability to fill voids and create a solid mass, and
its ability to hold a hydrostatic head, will eliminate the problems
associated with capillary action.
simple test can establish the amount of Concrete Remedy DS required to
solve the problem. After your first application, merely tape down
several pieces of ordinary dry sponge or foam rubber to the treated
surface. After 24 hours, under normal conditions, the sponge will
appear dry and the job is completed. However, in extreme problem
areas of excessive moisture and seepage, the sponge will be be damp
to wet. When this occurs it is an indication the treatment must
be repeated as many times as is necessary until the sponge is dry
after 24 hours.
Concrete Remedy DS treatment is now permanent. No other waterproofing
treatment will EVER be necessary.
Report No. 6
The "Alkali Problem" (in concrete walls and subfloors)
is never pure and rarely stable. It is made up of combination of
elements and almost always reacts with other elements or chemicals.
start with hydrogen; then lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium,
cesium and francium. Francium is radioactive with a half-life of
20 minutes. The other five are the very active alkali metals. Each
element has electrons and molecules which are always eager to take
part in chemical reactions with other elements.
two most important alkali metals are sodium and potassium. We find
a hint of them in potassium carbonate and sodium carbonate. Sodium
makes up 2.6% of the earths crust and potassium makes 2.5%, yet
we never see them. They are always found in combinations with other
elements. Neither of them could remain in a pure state in air or
increased use of concrete subfloors in direct contact with the ground
makes it more important than ever to completely understand the moisture
and alkali inherent in these subfloors and their effects on paints
and floor coverings.
known as the "alkali problem", this condition is primarily
a problem of moisture. Alkali is present in every concrete slab
and is more detrimental when moisture is present. On adequately
ventilated suspended concrete subfloors, moisture is not present
in troublesome quantities. However, when the slab is in direct contact
with the ground or a poorly ventilated air space, moisture is brought
up through the slab by capillary action. It dissolves the alkaline
salts in the concrete and appears at the surface as a destructive
alkaline solution causing spalling and efflorescence.
moisture and alkali conditions can vary greatly, there is always
sufficient moisture in the ground and alkali in concrete to present
an " alkali problem " on subfloors. It is never safe to assume that
a concrete slab will always be dry because it has been dry until
now. When paint or floor coverings are applied, even a small undetected
amount of moisture can cause coverings to warp, buckle or separate
from the concrete surface.
DS will alleviate this problem by sealing, waterproofing and moisture
proofing the concrete slab eliminating spalling and efflorescence,
leaving clean surfaces similar to " etching " to which paint or
mastics and adhesive can effectively secure a better bond with.
DS treatment will eliminate these destructive, moisture and alkali
related problems for Ever.
Report No. 7
Concrete Dusting and Wear Due to Abrasion
The following is a quotation from Chemistry and Technology of Paints,
by Maximilian Toch, published by D. Van Nostrand Co., New York,
Portland cement is a rocklike alkaline lime substance composed
of sand and / or gravel mixed with cement and water. In attempting
to apply paints, adhesives or floor coverings, it is recommended
to clean the surface first. Surfaces are cleansed with muriatic,
sulfuric or acetic acids. The application of these acids to Portland
cement destroys the cement because they dissolve out the lime
and leave the sand and aggregate loosely bound.
cement floors ' dust up' merely under the abrasion of (shoe) heels.
Factories that have machinery, calculators, electronic or delicate
instruments have found it impossible to operate under these dusting
conditions. To alleviate these conditions, paint or floor coverings
above quotation is used to illustrate that concrete alone creates
a multitude of problems. Coatings such as paint and floor coverings
are used in an attempt to alleviate or enhance the use of masonry.
However, such coatings have proven completely ineffectual when excessive
moisture and alkali contents are present.
dusting, ( small particles of the surface broken free) , is caused
by any vehicular, foot, machinery and other traffic over the concrete
surface. Dusting is a costly foe to efficiency due to damages it
causes to machinery, merchandise, other equipment, and environmental
extreme situations dusting can be classed as wear due to abrasion
(i.e. high traffic areas like bridge decks, garages, stairs, etc.)
and the result can be costly premature replacement of the surface
DS's chemical reaction with the alkali and lime which causes the
independent particles of concrete to solidify, harden and strengthen
the concrete, along with its ability to stop the penetration or
transmission of moisture, can permanently eliminate dusting and
abrasion due to wear for Ever.
DS can eliminate the necessity of a floor covering.
Report No. 8
Aid for the Floor Trade
Floor covering failures are caused by one or more combinations of
the following :
apply asphalt, vinyl or rubber tiles and other floor coverings,
there usually must be some site preparation consisting of the removal
of contaminates and loose particulate/dust from the surface to be
covered. Mastics or adhesives of some kind must usually be applied
in order to bond the covering to the surface.
are aware of the make-up of concrete and the problems built into
using it in the form of alkali, lime and moisture. We are also aware
of the factors of porosity and how the water used to mix the cement
and aggregates evaporates during the long curing period leaving
mass voids and pores through which moisture passes and mixes with
the slab is covered, the drawing action (from capillary action)
on the moisture in and under the slab, is greatly increased. When
this alkali-rich moisture is drawn up into contact with the adhesives,
the following occurs: The adhesive emulsifies or starts to deteriorate,
resulting in bubbles or blistering which cause warping, cracking,
and peeling (off) of the adhesive and/or the cover, necessitating
replacement of one or both, at substantial cost.
DS, due to its internal chemical reaction caused gels, its ability
to hold a hydrostatic head, and the fact that it is not a surface,
but, an internal sealer, will solve the problems related to the
floor covering trade because Concrete Remedy DS prevents the moisture
from being drawn up into contact with the adhesives or mastics for
Note: It must not be overlooked by applicators that Concrete Remedy
DS is an internal sealer, and as such, the surface to be treated
can not be so, unless it is bare. The surface must be free of any
surface coating or contaminant prior to the application of Concrete Remedy
Report No. 9
Aid for the Paint Trade
DS treatment is essential if concrete is to be painted.
Why do paints blister or crack on concrete surfaces? It is due to
a problem called saponification (soap creation). When soap is manufactured,
the basic ingredients are a form of alkali and oil. The combination
of alkali in the concrete and the oil in the paint causes saponification,
which in this case is more commonly identified as flaking, blistering,
and peeling of paint from the surface.
the much improved vinyl, rubber and latex based paints tend to peel
and crack off of the surface.
prime reason for this is that the alkali and lime are still "fighting"
the paints. If these coatings are being used to seal or waterproof
the surface they will need to be reapplied periodically to be effective,
requiring costly stripping before each re-application, or the formation
of many layers of material in various states of decomposition. Such
multiple layers will not allow the concrete floor to breathe, and
if concrete can not breathe it will decompose and disintegrate.
The application of Concrete Remedy DS to concrete surfaces will give
a permanently alkali and moisture free surface for better bonding
of paints. When applied in accordance with the manufacturer's directions,
the paint life on a structure can be increased up to 300%, providing
a longer ' fresh paint ' appearance and reducing maintenance cost.
examination of the concrete, after Concrete Remedy DS has been applied
and the surface washed, will reveal clean pores. In many cases this
has the same effect as ' etching' which is quite often necessary
prior to applications of paints and adhesives for better bonding.
surface treatment or coating must be removed prior to applying Concrete Remedy
DS to allow it to penetrate the surface. On occasion, foreign matter
such as grease and oils will be floated to the surface by the Concrete Remedy
DS as it penetrates the concrete. This foreign matter should be
flushed off with water prior to painting. In areas where there is
an excessive amount of foreign matter, several rinsing may be necessary.
Report No. 10
Wall Sweating Problems
respect to wall sweating, it should be remembered that the surface
of most common concrete building materials have an affinity for
water molecules. This molecular film is proportionate to the relative
humidity. At saturation points, all voids, pores and capillaries
can become completely filled. When the atmospheric conditions, inside
or outside, (which caused the excessive moisture in the first place)
is alleviated, the porous wall may become filled to saturation point
with moisture in liquid form.
condition then provides an excellent opportunity for (water) vapor
to travel within a wall or structure. In its travels, the vapor
may strike a cold(er) area or dew point and condense in sufficient
quantities to reach the interior wall surfaces and appear as wall
sweat or bleeding. Both sweating and the condensation which causes
it, can be greatly affected by temperature, humidity, wind velocity,
soil moisture conditions, etc.
conditions, if allowed to go unchecked, can cause peeling paints,
spalling, formation of mildew, and efflorescence resulting in heavy
maintenance costs. All porous masonry materials will be subject
to the same conditions unless the proper steps are taken to avoid
application of Concrete Remedy DS in the same manner as for waterproofing,
will, due to its unique capabilities and results, stop these conditions
which lead to wall sweating for EVER.